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When to use Nextel™ 440 Fibers

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3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Textiles and Composites provide innovative solutions in industries from aerospace to petroleum refining to metal processing. The outstanding thermal protection provided by Nextel™ Fabrics, Tapes and Sleevings allows engineers and manufacturers to handle high temperature applications up to 2500°F (1371°C).
Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers 312 and 440, when converted to fabrics, tapes, sleevings, and paper are used in the aerospace, industrial, automotive, electrical and petrochemical markets as heat shields, curtains, linings, insulation, blankets and seals. Nextel™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper, engineered with Nextel™ Fiber 312, is ideal in applications where both flame barrier properties and light weight are critical.

Nextel™ Composite Fibers


The family of 3M™ Nextel™ Fibers was developed to serve a variety of needs. 3M™ Nextel™ Fibers 312, 440, and 550 are designed for non-structural applications where their primary purpose is to insulate or to act as a flame barrier.  To aid in the selection of the proper fiber for each of these different applications, the fibers are tested in a manner appropriate to their end use.

3M™ Nextel™ 440 Ceramic Fiber Typical Properties


Property

Units

Nextel™ 440

Use Temperature

2500°F

Filament Diameter

mm

 

Crystal Size

nm

<500

Crystal Type

 

gamma Al2O3
+ mullite
+ amorph. SiO2

Density

g/cc

3.05

Filament Tensile Strength (51mm gage)

MPa

2000

Filament Tensile Modulus

GPa

190

Surface Area

m2/g

<.2

Composition

wt%

70 Al2O3
28 SiO2
2 B2O3

Thermal Expansion (100-1100°C)

ppm/°C

5.3

Dielectric Constant

(@ 9.375 Ghz)

5.7

3M™ Nextel™ Roving 440 – Typical Properties


Color: Coral

Roving

Nominal Filament Count

Yield ± 10% yds/lb
m/kg

Breaking Load*  lbs kg

700 denier (78 tex)

400

6350

12800

7

3,2

1000 denier (111 tex)

400

4460

8990

9

4,1

2000 denier (222 tex)

750

2230

4490

14

6,4

3M™ Nextel™ Plied Yarn 440 – Typical Properties


Color: Coral

Yarn

Ends

Diameter in mm

Yield ± 10% yds/lb m/kg

Breaking Load* lbs kg

700 denier (78 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

1/2

2

0.007

0,18

3000

6050

15

6,9

1/4

4

0.013

0,33

1530

3080

27

12,2

1000 denier (111 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

1/2

2

0.01

0,25

2150

4330

20

9,1

2/2

4

0.017

0,43

1070

2160

35

15,9

3/4

12

0.036

0,91

350

710

95

43,1

1800 denier (200 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

1/2

2

0.016

0,41

1065

2150

34

15,4

2/5

10

0.047

1,19

210

420

140

63,5

Note:  All yields are based upon sized rovings and yarns.  The allowable range in add-ons for sizing is 1.1 to 3.0% by weight.  The allowable tolerance on final twist is ± 30%.
*  Tested at room temperature.
**  The allowable tolerance on final twist is ± 30%.  Other twist levels available.

3M™ Nextel™ 440 Roving Strength Maximum Temperature Limit

 

Roving Strength

Fiber

Maximum

 

 Temperature Limit

Nextel™ 440

 

* Strain rate = 12.5 mm/min

Fiber Weight Loss Nextel™ 440 Ceramic Fiber Roving


Roving samples were subjected to 2192°F (1200°C) for fifteen hours. Fibers were weighed before and after the fifteen hour exposure in order to determine weight loss. The fiber evolves B2O3 at temperatures greater than 2012°F (1100°C).

Fiber

Weight Loss %

440

0

Shrinkage on Nextel™ 440 Fiber


Roving samples were held at each temperature for fifteen hours. After that time they were measured for shrinkage. All fiber compositions showed less than three percent shrinkage after fifteen hours at 2372ýF (1300ýC). Nextel™ 440 Fiber compositions showed shrinkage of less than 1.5% at these conditions.

Nextel™ Ceramic Fiber 440 Moisture Absorption


The 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers 440 absorb very little moisture due to their smooth, non-porous surface. Fibers exposed to 100% relative humidity for several hours at room temperature had 0.08% weight gain.

Cryogenic Testing on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Tape 440


Five samples of 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Tape 440 1 inch (2,54 cm) wide were cut to 6 inch (15,2 cm) lengths for testing in liquid nitrogen.

Samples were heat cleaned at 1472 F (800 C) for one hour to remove the sizing before testing.

Samples were placed in liquid nitrogen to soak for three minutes. Samples were then removed and tested for strength retention.

A second set of five samples was dipped into liquid nitrogen ten times and then tested for strength retention.

 

Retained Strength

Sample

Soaked 3 Minutes in N2

Dipped 10 Times in N2

3M™ Nextel™ Tape 440

98%

89%

Radiation Resistance & Microwave Measurement - 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic 440 Radiation Resistance


Exposure to radiation from a Cobalt 60 source did no noticeable damage to the 3M™ Nextel™ Fiber 440. A total of 1 x 107 rads at an exposure rate of 2.1 x 10 5 rads/hour did not change the tensile strength of the fibers, yarns or fabrics made from the fibers.

Microwave Measurements


Power Transmission and Reflection for 3M™ Nextel™ Fabric panels 18 inch x 18 inch (45.7 cm x 45.7 cm) at 10 GHz.


Fabric

Transmission*

Reflection**

Transmission*

Reflection**

Specimen

5

10

5

10

 

Layers

Layers

Layers

Layers

AF-30

96.50%

97.80%

7%

0.45%

BF-30

94.70%

96.70%

7%

0.14%

*Sample held with styrofoam panels, angles of incidence 0°.
**Sample uncompressed, angle of incidence 10°. Compared to copper plate with perpendicular polarization.

3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabric 440 – Thermal Optical Properties*


The optical properties of fibers on the exterior of the space craft controls the amount of solar heating that will occur in orbit. For instance, a low absorptivity would be desired if one were designing components for a spacecraft mission. This would reflect most of the sun’s energy and protect the craft and the instruments from high temperatures.
Optical measurements were made on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabric 440 using a Gler Dunkle DB-100 Emissometer and MS-251 Solar Reflectometer machines. The average absorptance () and emittance () are as follows:

Material

Absorptivity

Emissivity

440

0.15

0.87

NASA Nonmetallic Material Testing*


Flammability, Toxicity and Thermal Vacuum Stability testing on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabrics was performed using procedures specified in NHB 8060.1B and SP-R-0022A.
Flammability: Passed test in 30% oxygen and 10 psia environment.
Toxicity: Passed Test.

Thermal Vacuum Stability: Heat cleaned fabric passed test. Sized 3M™ Nextel™ Fabric outgassed volatile condensable materials of 0.15%, which exceeded the required limit of 0.1 weight %.
*Courtesy-NASA


Back to 3M™ Nextel™ Overview

Further information on 3M™ Nextel™ 440 Ceramic Textiles

Further information on other 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Textiles

 

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